Science and society are closely related, and this is obvious. It is not for nothing that the basic functions of science are also called social functions. Science satisfies the needs of society for something. Science is a contractor, and society is a customer. Very often the customer puts the contractor in a certain frame. Likewise, science is influenced by the social, economic, cultural and political spheres of human activity
Science and politics.
Sometimes the government makes a specific order for the development of something to scientists. So during the Cold War, nuclear technologies, astronautics, the military industry, etc. began to actively develop. After mass protests of disgruntled workers and other unrest in the 60s, the Soviet Union “suddenly remembered” that there are such sciences as sociology and social psychology, until that moment they did not see any practical use in them and did not invest in them in any way.
“Until the thunder breaks out, the man does not cross himself” – the basic principle of relations between politicians and scientists. Without giving specific examples, it can be added that in many countries meteorology, seismology and volcanology were able to develop only when many people have already died due to the corresponding cataclysms.
In the matter of science and politics, the main goal is predictive. For this, entire research institutes are being created that try to predict something according to their specialization – from a possible flood to an economic crisis. There is only one unpleasant nuance here: as in the case of the fight against terrorism, we do not see positive results of our activity (like a referee in football – good when invisible), but negative ones override all others.
Science and Economics.
Modern science is becoming more and more commercially oriented. The state is not always able to allocate as much funds as it would like, and more and more scientific projects are sponsored by private foundations. And private foundations, in turn, want to make money, secondly, they want to earn an image on a scientific project, and thirdly, they think about the development of science itself.
It is difficult to say what to do with the problem of relations between science and economics, since this is a feature of human civilization , and nothing can be done about it.
Science and art.
The connection between science and art is not as obvious as it is with politics and economics, but it does exist. Their relationship, I would say, is more platonic, even high. And one more important point – mutually beneficial.
Here are some examples. With the development of science, more genres have appeared in literature, cinema, and the existing genres have developed deeper. Science fiction films and books appeared, which influenced public interest in art.
What is the benefit of art to science? Answer: predictive. Quite often, writers “invented” some kind of technology or apparatus, and then scientists invented it. In this case, art gave impetus to the development of science. HG Wells alone “predicted” – the atomic bomb, the appearance of an answering machine, air conditioner, airliner, joystick, combination of a TV and a player, laser weapons, etc.